Volcanoes are mountains with craters at the top formed on Hot Spots or Divergent and Subduction Zones. Below that crater is a tube. Within that tube is hot magma flowing through to the top of the volcano. Gases within the volcano heat up, expand and finally cause the volcano to erupt. In this section you will learn about volcanoes, different types and some information about each of them.
Volcanology is the scientific study of volcanoes. Volcan is a word that comes from the Spanish language meaning "Volcano". Ology means "The study of".
From the outside a volcano may look like a simple mountain but the inside of a volcano is much different. Inside a volcano is a long tube leading up towards the top filled with lava. This is called a vent. The area in which the magma is held is called a magma reservoir. There are really only two parts to a volcano, the vent and magma reservoir. Although there are only two parts, there are different volcanoes to.
A shield volcano is a volcano that is huge in size, but not height. Take the Hawaiian islands for example, the islands are Shield Volcanoes. These volcanoes are mostly produced on plates with Hot Spots below them. Shield Volcanoes are made of lava flows that create a smooth sloped surface. Unlike the other volcanoes, shield volcanoes ooze magma rather than erupt violently.
Cinder Cone Volcanoes
Cinder cone volcanoes are the simplest type of volcano. The cinder cone has a bowl shaped crater and rarely rises more than 1 thousand feet. It is a steep sided volcano made of layers of ash and cinder that is crushed during eruption causing the tiny pieces to fall rapidly towards the ground, therefore creating more steep and rough ground. Unlike other volcanoes the cinder cone has only one vent leading towards the top of the volcano and has a very violent eruption that shoots out ash and lava.
Composite volcanoes are made of alternating layers of ash and lava. These volcanoes are a mix of the other two types of volcanoes, therefore it shoots out both lava and ash, along with oozing out magma. Composite volcanoes can have a very violent eruption or a calm ooze of magma. These volcanoes are the biggest in the world. Unlike other volcanoes, the composite has many vents rather than one.